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Saxony during the Weimar Republic 1918-1933

The Birth of the Free State

After the end of the monarchy, Herrmann Fleissner (SPD) proclaims the Saxon Republic at the Circus Sarrasani. The Free State of Saxony is formed, and is given its own constitution. As part of the Weimar Republic, Saxony is however tied into the empire, and loses its military, railway, and financial souvereignty. In 1923, after revolts caused by the inflation, a state of emergency is declared in the German empire. Fearing a leftist revolutionary rising, imperial troops are sent to occupy the Free State (imperial execution). In 1932, the last Saxon king, Frederick Augustus III dies.

 

November 10, 1918 The newly formed United Revolutionary Workers’ and Soldiers’ Council declares that the king has been deposed and the monarchy abolished. Hermann Fleissner (SPD), speaking at the Sarrasani Circus, announces the establishment of the Republic of Saxony.

November 13, 1918 King Frederick Augustus III formally abdicates at Guteborn Castle near Ruhland.

November 15, 1918 After the proclamation of the republic (Nov. 10) and the abdication of king Frederick Augustus III (13.11.) government is taken over by three people's representatives each of the USPD and of the SPD.

November 28, 1918 The general, equal, direct and secret voting right for both men and women over 21 years of age is introduced.

January 19, 1919 Elections of the German national assembly: SPD 17, Civic 12, USPD 3 seats

January 22, 1919 Following the resignation of the three USPD people's representatives (Jan. 16), Georg Gradnauer forms an SPD government.

February 2, 1919 Elections of the Saxon people's chamber: SPD 42, USPD 15, DDP 22, DNVP 13, DVP 4 seats

February 25, 1919 The people's chamber is constituted, the people's representatives resign. On February 28, a draft constitution is ratified, which for the first time provides for the role of Prime Minister.

March 14, 1919 The first constitutional government takes office with Gradnauer (SPD) as head of state.

1919 Various strikes and violent revolts cause several states of emergency throughout the year, and can only be quelled with the help of imperial troops.

May 1919 Final division of church and state takes place

August 11, 1919 The imperial constitution comes into effect, Saxony loses her military souvereignty.

November 1, 1920 The constitution of the Saxon Free State, ratified by the people's chamber on October 26, comes into force. Saxony is tied closely into the German empire and loses her railway and financial souvereignty.

October 14, 1920 Landtag elections: SPD 27, USPD 16, KPD 6, Civic 47 seats

October 11, 1921 The first NSDAP group outside of Bavaria is founded by Fritz Tittmann

November 5, 1922 Landtag elections result in a SPD/USPD majority

November 18, 1922 NSDAPis banned in Saxony; the ban is revoked in 1925

March 21, 1923 Minority government under Zeigner (SPD)

September 27, 1923 A state of emergency is declared in the German empire after revolts due to the rising inflation.

October 22 - November 6, 1923 Saxony is occupied by the empire (imperial execution). The Zeigner government is dissovled (Oct. 29) to prevent a leftist revolutionary uprising. Rudolf Heinze is appointed imperial commissioner for Saxony.

November 1, 1923 Formation of a temporary government under Alfred Fellisch

October 31, 1926 Landtag elections: SPD 31, ASPD 4, KPD 14, DDP 5, DVP 12, DNVP 14, NSDAP 2, others 14 seats

May 12, 1990 Landtag elections: SPD 33, ASPD 2, KPD 12, DDP 4, DVP 13, DNVP 8, NSDAP 5, Industrial Party11, Appreciation Party 3, Saxon Rurals 5 seats

June 22, 1930 Landtag elections: SPD 32, KPD 13, German State Party 3, DVP 8, DNVP 5, NSDAP 14, WP 10, AP 2, SL 5, others 4 seats

February 18, 1932 The last king of Saxony, Frederick Augustus III, dies at Sybillenort Castle (Silesia).

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